Horticulture Crops [Part 3]

July 24, 2012
By Krishiworld

ARIETIES. The number of varieties is very large. Each variety has its own peculiar taste, flavour and consistently of pulp. Some of the important commercial varieties grown in different regions are : ‘Bombay yellow’, ‘Alphonso’, ‘Gopal Bhog’, ‘Zafran’ (all early), ‘Langra’, ‘Desheri’, ‘Safeda Lucknow’, ‘Safeda Malihabad’, ‘Fajrizafrani’ (all mid-late). ‘Fajri’, ‘Same Bihisht’, ‘Chausa’, ‘Taimura’ (all late). In Uttar Pradesh; ‘Bombai’, ‘Alphonso’, ‘Hemsagar’, ‘Krishna Bhog’, ‘Aman Dasheri’, ‘Gulab Khas’ (all early), ‘Langra’, ‘Aman Abbasi’, ‘Khasul-Khas’ (all mid-late), ‘ Sinduri’, ‘Sukal’, ‘Taimuria’ (all late) in Bihar; ‘Bombai’ or ‘Maldah’, ‘Gopal Bhog’, ‘Hemsagar’ (all early), ‘Krishna Bhog’, ‘Zardalu’ (both mid-late), ‘Murshidabadi’, ‘Fazli Maldah’ (both late) in West Bengal; ‘Alphonso’, ‘Pairi’, ‘Cowsji Patel’, ‘Jamadar’ in Bombay; ‘Swarnarekha’, ‘Benishan’, ‘Cherukurasan’, ‘Panchadarkalasa’, ‘Desavathiyamamidi’, ‘Sannakulu’, ‘Nagulapalli’, ‘Irsala’ in Circars; ‘Rumani’, ‘Neelum Benishan’, ‘Bangalore’, ‘Alampur Benishan’ in Rayalaseema; ‘Murshidabadi’, ‘Mulgoa’, ‘Goabunder’, ‘Benishan’, ‘Neelam’, ‘Totapuri’ or ‘Bangalora’ in Telengana; ‘Alphonso’, ‘Peter’, ‘Rumani’ in central districts; ‘Mundappa’, ‘Neelam’, ‘Alphonso’, ‘Olour’, ‘Bennet Alphonso’, ‘Kalepad’, ‘Peter’, ‘Fernandin’ in Coorg and Karnataka; and ‘Padiri’, ‘Alphonso’, ‘Peter’, ‘Neelum’, ‘Bangalore’, ‘Rumani’ in Tamil Nadu. In Goa, some excellent varieties like ‘Alphonso’, ‘Fernandin’, ‘Mankurad’ and ‘Moussorate’ are under cultivation. The new mango variety, ‘Mallika’ evolved at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute is now gaining popularity.

Other varieties, such as ‘Jehangir’ and ‘Himayuddin’, produce high-quality fruits, but are poor in yield and cropping tendencies. Attempts are being made to evolve hybrid progenies by crossing.

PROPOGATION AND PLANTING. Propogated vegetatively by inarching or budding in situ in the nursery, either by using Forkert or by using the T-method. The beginning of the monsoon in light-rainfall areas and the end of the monsoon in heavy-rainfall regions are the most suitable periods for inarching or budding. Recently, veneer-grafting has been found to be the best method of mango propagation. Grafted plant are ready for transplanting in the field after six to twelve months. Select straight-growing grafts and set them in pits filled with soil mixed with farmyard manure (45 kg) and a fertilizer mixture containing 0.225 kg of N, 0.45 kg of P and 0.225 kg of K per pit. The planting-distance is 7.5 to 9 metres in poor shallow soils and 15 to 17 metres in deep fertile soils. The beginning of the monsoon in low rainfall areas or the end of the monsoon in heavy rainfall tracts is the best time for planting. The graft-joint should be at least 15 cm above the ground.

PRUNING.   No systematic pruning is done. The removal of dead-wood and the thinning of over-crowded and mis-shapen branches after about four years is all that is necessary; flowers that appear during the first three or four years should be removed.

CULTURE. Before planting, the field is ploughed, harrowed and levelled. Thereafter, it is ploughed and harrowed twice a year, once in the beginning of the monsoon and again at the close of the rainy season or in the cold-weather. It is green-manured once every two or three years. Short-season intercrops, like vegetables, may be taken during the first four to five years. Young plants require irrigation regularly. After five to six years, when they have established themselves, the trees are able to grow and fruit satisfactorily without irrigation in most parts of Peninsular India. In northern India, they have to be irrigated throughout their life. Irrigation is usually withheld during the cold weather before flowering, especially in deep retentive soils. Though the exact manurial requirement is not known, regular manuring is beneficial. The dose recommended for the bearing trees is 45 to 70 kg of farmyard manure, 0.5 to 0.7 kg of N, 0.7 kg to 1.0 kg of P and 1.2 to 1.5 kg of K per tree. Nitrogen and half of potash may be given before the monsoon, and farmyard manure, phosphate and half of potash in October or before flowering starts.

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